• Fun Facts

    Australians are exposed to 2 millisieverts of 'background' radiation per year
    A CT of the chest can be roughly equivalent to having 100 single chest X-rays
    15x Melbourne → Singapore → London flights exposes you to 1 millisievert
  • Diagnostic X-rays

    A diagnostic X-ray is the oldest and most common medical radiology procedure. Radiologists use X-rays to help diagnose disease or injury inside your body. A machine directs a small, carefully calculated amount of radiation toward a specific part of the body to produce an image on a film on the other side of the body. Radiologists study the X-ray images to detect and diagnose disease or injury.

  • CT dosage

    Computed Tomography (CT) is currently one of the major contributors to the collective population radiation dose due to the increasing popularity of CT examinations as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. The evolution of CT scanner technology has turned their use from specialized into routine examination. More due diligence is required due to the high radiation dose of CT.

  • Where to from here?

    It is of the utmost importance that both clinical justification as well as technical optimization are implemented to maintain a high benefit to risk ratio. Solid interdisciplinary partnerships and research endeavours between clinical specialists and technology engineers will help to fast track developments in this area.



Andreas Fouras
Adjunct Professor of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

Rhiannon Murrie
Research Associate, Physics

Isaac Pinar
Research Associate, Engineering

Stevie Liu
PhD: Modelling of lung mechanics

David Wenger
Masters: Imaging the lung

Melissa Fitzgerald Preissner
Masters: Lab source X-ray imagine to evaluation Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

George Goonan
PhD: Coded apertures


thumbnail-andreas Andreas Fouras
LDI head Andreas has relocated to the USA. He continues his role at Monash University as Adjunct Professor of Mech & Aero Engineering
Andreas is Founder and Executive Chairman of medical technology startup 4Dx.

thumbnail-richard Richard Carnibella
PhD: Quantitative analysis of size distributions in granular and porous materials from X-ray images, completed: 2016
Richard has moved from LDI to head Clinical Liaison at 4Dx.

thumbnail-jordan Jordan Thurgood
PhD: X-ray Imaging for Investigating Lung Function and Mechanics, completed: 2015
Jordan has moved from LDI into the commercialisation unit at Monash University.

thumbnail-rajeev Rajeev Samarage
PhD: Advances in Particle Image Velocimetry, completed: 2015
Rajeev has moved from LDI to be the Clinical Research Lead of 4Dx.

thumbnail-michael Michael Curtis
PhD: Realtime manipulation of cells using fluid flow, completed: 2015
Michael has moved from LDI to be the Software Development Manager of 4Dx.

thumbnail-yann Yann Henon
PhD: Numerical simulation of red blood cells in fluid flows
Yann has moved from LDI to the commercial engineering industry in Boston, USA.

thumbnail-charlene Charlene Stahr
LDI Office Manager and research administrator 2008–2014
Charlene has moved from LDI to be the Operations Manager of 4Dx.

thumbnail-harris Harris Athanassiou
Harris worked as a scientific technician at LDI during 2013
Harris has moved from LDI into commercial quality assurance in Melbourne, Australia.

thumbnail-aidan R. Aidan Jamison
PhD: Imaging of flow and shear in vasculature disease models, completed: 2015
Aidan has moved from LDI to become a patent attorney in Melbourne, Australia.

thumbnail-zac Zac Ismadi
PhD: Mechanical properties characterisation of bioreactors for stem cell culture completed: 2014
Sajith has moved from LDI to the transport manufacture industry in Melbourne, Australia.

thumbnail-sajith Sajith Welikala
Masters: Development of biomedical devices for asthma model studies
Sajith has moved from LDI to the transport manufacture industry in Melbourne, Australia.

thumbnail-dilendra Dilendra Galhena
Masters: High precision microfluid control, completed: 2014
Dilendra has moved from LDI to the mining industry in Queensland, Australia.

thumbnail-ivan Ivan Ng
Masters: Development of a benchtop synchrotron, completed: 2013
Ivan has moved from LDI to continue research through a PhD in Physics.

thumbnail-adam Adam Silverii
Masters: Advances in mechanical ventilation for preterm–premature infants, completed: 2012
Adam has moved from LDI to the energy industry in Melbourne, Australia.

thumbnail-steve Stephen Dubsky
PhD: Development of correlation based 3-D PIV techniques, completed: 2012
Steve has moved from LDI to continue his research in advanced computational analysis of biomedical systems at Monash University.

thumbnail-simon Simon Higgins
Masters: Design of a chamber for the control of shear on individual cells, completed: 2012
Simon has moved from LDI to the engineering design industry in Melbourne, Australia.

thumbnail-jayne Jayne Nguyen
Masters: Ventilation Design for Use in Assisting Premature Infant Respiration, completed: August 2012
Jayne has moved from LDI to the engineering design industry in Melbourne, Australia.

thumbnail-elham Elham Tolouei
PhD: Investigation of shear dependent platelet aggregation, completed: May 2012
Elham has moved from LDI to pursue engineering career opportunities in Dubai.

thumbnail-vaibhav Vaibhav Kumar
Project: Hydraulic analogy examination of underexpanded jet shock cells
Vaibhav moved from LDI to complete postgraduate studies at Stanford, before moving into systems integration in Silicon Valley, CA, USA.

thumbnail-chuong Chuong Nguyen
PhD: Optimisation of Volumetric–PIV techniques, completed: 2010
Chuong has moved from LDI to continue his hyperspectral imaging research at Australian National University.

thumbnail-sally Sally Irvine
PhD (Physics): Development of X-ray imaging techniques using phase contrast PIV, completed: 2010
Sally has moved from LDI to be a synchrotron scientist at the Diamond Light Source, UK.



Thomas Tanay

Project: Free convection visualisation of a hot–wire

Tenure: 2010, October – January 2011
Home institute: SUPMECA: Institut Superieur de Mecanique de Paris, France
In order to improve our knowledge of the human body's response to X-rays used in Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), LDI researchers would like to develop an imaging system based on a Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) method. During my internship with LDI, I am conducting a preliminary study that consists of using the BOS method to visualise the free convection from a horizontal heated wire in water.


Philippe Marchal

Project: OHS and logistics overview of LDI

Tenure: 2010, August – September
Home institute: L'école d'ingénieur du cesi, France
During his internship, Philippe completed a series of tasks to evaluate the occupational health and safety (OHS) procedures in place in our research group, and to perform analyses to offer recommendations for our current procedures based on our laws as well as his skills and expertise. Philippe works as part of a logistics team in a railroad company back home in France, and offered valuable suggestions for improvements to be implemented to our OHS structure.


Laure Sevenier

Project: Laser PIV of lung model

Tenure: 2010, March – August
Home institute: SUPMECA: Institut Superieur de Mecanique de Paris, France
During her internship, Laure completed a project involving laser particle image velocimetry (PIV) to investigate the fluid dynamics of flow within a simplified lung model. She evaluated that expiratory flows were not the opposite to inspiratory flows by conducting both experimental work and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Laure also studied the benefits of high frequency ventilation for lung aeration.

2011, March 11th: The Division of Biological Engineering research groups, comprising of the LDI Laboratory, and Cell & Tissue Engineering Laboratory's staff and postgraduate students. (L–R; Mariam, Dilendra, Richard, Sajith, Elham, Michael, Andreas, Ivan, Zac, Yann, Charlene, Rajeev, Aidan, Jordan, Steve, Adam, Karla and Simon)

2009, August 28th: Members of LDI in the foyer of the Langham Hotel Melbourne after attending the 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09. We presented 10 talks at the Symposium on various areas and techniques of PIV involved in our group's different research endeavours. The submitted conference papers can be found on our 2009 publications page. To find out more about our research, please visit our Research page.