• Fun Facts

    Australians are exposed to 2 millisieverts of 'background' radiation per year
    A CT of the chest can be roughly equivalent to having 100 single chest X-rays
    15x Melbourne → Singapore → London flights exposes you to 1 millisievert
  • Diagnostic X-rays

    A diagnostic X-ray is the oldest and most common medical radiology procedure. Radiologists use X-rays to help diagnose disease or injury inside your body. A machine directs a small, carefully calculated amount of radiation toward a specific part of the body to produce an image on a film on the other side of the body. Radiologists study the X-ray images to detect and diagnose disease or injury.

  • CT dosage

    Computed Tomography (CT) is currently one of the major contributors to the collective population radiation dose due to the increasing popularity of CT examinations as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. The evolution of CT scanner technology has turned their use from specialized into routine examination. More due diligence is required due to the high radiation dose of CT.

  • Where to from here?

    It is of the utmost importance that both clinical justification as well as technical optimization are implemented to maintain a high benefit to risk ratio. Solid interdisciplinary partnerships and research endeavours between clinical specialists and technology engineers will help to fast track developments in this area.


LDI Profile

photo-andreas photo-andreas2

Professor Andreas Fouras

Adjunct Professor of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
NHMRC Career Development Fellow 2012–2015
LDI Research Director, founding–2015

Visiting Professor, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, USA
Visiting Professor, Children's Hospital LA, USA
Visiting Professor, Cleveland Clinic, USA
Email: Email Andreas


BEng (Mech, Hons) U.Q. 1995, MEngSc(Res) Monash 1998, PhD Monash 2008

Awards and Honours:

  • Australian Academy of Science (AAS) Early-Mid Career Researcher (EMCR) Forum Committee Member (from 2013)

    The EMCR Forum engages with Australian early‐mid career scientists to advise the Academy on key issues raised by younger researchers to help inform its policy recommendations to government.
  • Vice-Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Research by an Early Career Researcher (2013)

    Monash University recognises a candidate with outstanding research achievement within ten years post graduation for improving human health through the development of new imaging technology.

    Faculty of Engineering Early Career Researcher Award (2013)

    The Monash University Faculty of Engineering recognises a candidate with outstanding research achievement within ten years post graduation.
  • Australian Davos Connection (ADC) Australian Leadership Award (2013)

    ADC Future Summit recognition for outstanding new talent, demonstrating vision for Australia’s future across economy, culture environment or community.
  • Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Award (2012)

    MST awards the Outstanding Paper Award for the best paper published in the journal for the calendar year. Polynomial element velocimetry (PEV): a technique for continuous in-plane velocity and velocity gradient measurements for low Reynolds number flows receives the award of Best Fluid Mechanics paper published in MST during 2012.
  • Monash Researcher Accelerator Program Award (2012)

    Awarded to recognise, reward and accelerate the career development of Monash's highest performing early to mid-career researchers.
  • NHMRC Achievement Award (2011)

    Top ranked Career Development Fellowship in the Biomedical Category (Level 1).

    Read Andreas's NHMRC Research Highlights profile.
  • The Visualization Society of Japan (VSJ) Award for Excellent Visualization (2011)

    Surface Topography of Jet Shock Cells in an Hydraulic Analogy. Journal of Visualisation, 13(3), 175–176. doi: 10.1007/s12650-010-0032-3
  • Bill Melbourne Award (2009)

    Most outstanding 2008 PhD Thesis in the Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Australia.

Research Interests:

Synchrotron-based in-vivo cardiovascular and pulmonary imaging and velocimetry, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) techniques, boundary-layer flows, experimental measurement and diagnostic techniques, cell rheology, image processing development, separated flows, free surface flows.

  Please visit our Research page to see some videos of LDI's collaborative research endeavours.

Teaching experience:

  • Unit coordinator: ENG4700 Biomedical Imaging and Sensing, Monash University Clayton (2012–2013)
  • Lecturer: ENG4700 Biomedical Imaging and Sensing, Monash University Clayton (S1 2009 – 2011)
  • Lecturer: MEC2490 Engineering Computing II, Monash University Clayton (2005 – 2006)

Invited talks:

  1. Fouras, A. (2013) Mechanical Engineering in Medical Research. 2013 Tri-University Research Workshop on Advanced Engineering, Monash University Clayton, Melbourne, Australia, 09–10 December 2013.
  2. Fouras, A. (2013) Quantification and Visualisation of 4D data. OzViz 2013, Monash University Clayton, Melbourne, Australia, 09–10 December 2013.
  3. Fouras, A. (2013) Re-engineering microbiology. Microbiology at Monash Forum, Monash University Clayton, Melbourne, Australia, 06 June 2013.
  4. Fouras, A. (2012) Mechano-biology: the perfect intersection of engineering and medicine?. MedTech Forum 2012: Gateway to a Global Medical Technologies Network, Monash University Clayton, Melbourne, Australia, 30 November 2012.
  5. Fouras, A. (2012) Synchrotron imaging for a new perspective on cardiovascular disease. Annual Scientific Meeting of the Asian Society for Vascular Surgery and the World Federation of Vascular Societies (ANZSVS 2012), Melbourne, Australia, 20–23 October 2012.
  6. Fouras, A. (2012) In vivo tomographic velocimetry of the lung for the detailed study of lung disease and its treatments. SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics — Developments in X-ray Tomography VIII, San Diego, U.S.A., 12–16 August 2012.
  7. Fouras, A. (2012) A Mechanical Engineer's Perspective on Medical Research. Monash Science Centre 2012 Lecture Series: Science Shaping Society, Monash University Clayton, Victoria, Australia, 25 July 2012.
  8. Fouras, A. (2011) Functional imaging enables new perspectives on disease, NHMRC Council, Canberra, Australia, 1 December 2011.
  9. Fouras, A. (2010) Looking at cross-correlation in depth: 3D micro-PIV for measurement in biological and highly-seeded environments, International Symposium on Micro/Nano Flow Measurement Techniques, Tokyo, Japan, 20–22 September 2010.
  10. Fouras, A. (2010) Towards Functional X-ray CT: disease revealed in motion, in Proc. 4th Australian-Italian Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation, Melbourne, Australia, 19–21 February 2010.


Visit Andreas's ResearcherID Profile for his Publication List and Citation Metrics.
Also visit our Publications page for a full listing of Andreas' publications.

Top Ten Publications:

  1. Morgan, K.S., Donnelley, M., Farrow, N., Fouras, A., Yagi, N., Suzuki, Y., Takeuchi, A., Uesugi, K., Boucher, R.C., Siu, K.K.W. & Parsons, D.W. (2014) In vivo x-ray imaging reveals improved airway surface hydration after Cystic Fibrosis airway therapy. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 190(4), 469–472.
    doi: 10.1164/rccm.201405-0855LE
  2. Nesbitt, W.S., Westein, E., Lopez, F.J.T., Tolouei, E., Mitchell, A., Fu, J., Carberry, J., Fouras, A. & Jackson, S.P. (2009) A shear gradient–dependent platelet aggregation mechanism drives thrombus formation, Nature Medicine, 15, 665–673.
    doi: 10.1038/nm.1955
  3. Curtis, M.D., Sheard, G.J. & Fouras, A. (2011) Feedback control system simulator for the control of biological cells in microfluidic cross slots and integrated microfluidic systems. Lab on a Chip, 11(14), 2343–2351.
    doi: 10.1039/C1LC20191C
  4. Fouras, A., Dusting, J., Lewis, R. & Hourigan, K. (2007) Three-dimensional synchrotron x-ray particle image velocimetry. Journal of Applied Physics, 102, 064916.
    doi: 10.1063/1.2783978
  5. Fouras, A., Dusting, J., Sheridan, J., Kawahashi, M., Hirahara, H. & Hourigan, K. (2009) "Engineering Imaging – Using Particle Image Velocimetry to See Physiology in a New Light", invited submission to Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 36(2), 238–247.
    doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2008.05102.x
  6. Fouras, A., Kitchen, M.J., Dubsky, S., Lewis, R.A., Hooper, S. & Hourigan, K. (2009) "The past, present and future of X-ray technology for in vivo imaging of function and form", invited submission to Journal of Applied Physics, 105, 102009: 1–14. Also published in Virtual Journal of Biological Physics Research.
    doi: 10.1063/1.3115643
  7. Dubsky, S., Jamison, R.A., Irvine, S.C., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) Computed tomographic X-ray velocimetry. Applied Physics Letters, 96(2), 023702.
    doi: 10.1063/1.3285173
  8. Fouras, A., Lo Jacono, D. & Hourigan, K. (2008) Target-free stereo PIV: A novel technique with inherent error estimation and improved accuracy. Experiments in Fluids, 44(2), 317-329.
    doi: 10.1007/s00348-007-0404-1
  9. Fouras, A., Lo Jacono, D., Nguyen C.V., & Hourigan, K. (2009) Volumetric Correlation PIV: a New Technique for 3D Velocity Vector Field Measurement. Experiments in Fluids, 47(4), 569–577.
    doi: 10.1007/s00348-009-0616-7
  10. Hooper, S.B., Kitchen, M.J., Siew, M.L., Lewis, R.A., Fouras, A., te Pas, A., Siu, K.K.W., Yagi, N., Uesugi, K. & Wallace, M. (2009) Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth using Phase-contrast X-ray imaging, Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 36(1), 117–125.
    doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2008.05109.x