• Fun Facts

    Australians are exposed to 2 millisieverts of 'background' radiation per year
    A CT of the chest can be roughly equivalent to having 100 single chest X-rays
    15x Melbourne → Singapore → London flights exposes you to 1 millisievert
  • Diagnostic X-rays

    A diagnostic X-ray is the oldest and most common medical radiology procedure. Radiologists use X-rays to help diagnose disease or injury inside your body. A machine directs a small, carefully calculated amount of radiation toward a specific part of the body to produce an image on a film on the other side of the body. Radiologists study the X-ray images to detect and diagnose disease or injury.

  • CT dosage

    Computed Tomography (CT) is currently one of the major contributors to the collective population radiation dose due to the increasing popularity of CT examinations as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. The evolution of CT scanner technology has turned their use from specialized into routine examination. More due diligence is required due to the high radiation dose of CT.

  • Where to from here?

    It is of the utmost importance that both clinical justification as well as technical optimization are implemented to maintain a high benefit to risk ratio. Solid interdisciplinary partnerships and research endeavours between clinical specialists and technology engineers will help to fast track developments in this area.


LDI Alumni Profile


Elham Tolouei

PhD graduate

Dept. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Monash University Clayton Campus

Supervisors: Professor Andreas Fouras and Dr Josie Carberry


BSc(Aerospace Engineering) AmirKabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic) 2001
MSc(Aerospace Engineering-Aerodynamics) AmirKabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic) 2004
PhD Monash 2012

PhD topic:

Investigation of shear dependent platelet aggregation


Developments in micro and nano scale techniques over the past decade are now being applied to aid our understanding of blood flow within the human body and treatment of blood diseases. Several important physiological and pathological phenomena occur in the microcirculation. In platelet studies it is very important to understand the detailed flow fields near the wall as the high shear rates and changing hemodynamic forces in this region are believed to affect platelet activation, adhesion and thrombus formation. A number of key variables regulating platelet function have been recognized for more than a century including the endothelial layer, stimulation of thrombogenic factors and hemodynamic forces. The roles of the first two factors have been extensively investigated, however the effect of hemodynamic parameters on platelet aggregation has been not well defined. This research investigates the effects of the local hemodynamic conditions on platelet function.

LDI Publications:

  1. Tolouei, E., Butler, C.J., Fouras, A., Ryan, K., Sheard, G.J. & Carberry, J. (2011) Effect of hemodynamic forces on platelet aggregation geometry. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 39(5), 1403–1413.
    doi: 10.1007/s10439-010-0239-4
  2. Nesbitt, W.S., Westein, E., Lopez, F.J.T., Tolouei, E., Mitchell, A., Fu, J., Carberry, J., Fouras, A. & Jackson, S.P. (2009) A shear gradient–dependent platelet aggregation mechanism drives thrombus formation, Nature Medicine, 15, 665–673.
    doi: 10.1038/nm.1955

LDI Conferences/Seminars:

  1. Tolouei, E., Fouras, A. & Carberry, J. (2010) Effect of shear rate on thrombus growth, 8th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels, Montreal, Canada, 1–5 August 2010.
  2. PDF Download Tolouei, E., Fouras, A. & Carberry, J. (2009) In vitro micro PIV measurements of velocity profiles near a wall, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.
  3. PDF Download Tolouei, E., Nesbitt, W.S., Fouras, A. & Carberry, J. (2008) A high spatial method to determine three-dimensional velocity gradient tensor using micro particle image velocimetry, 14th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 7-10 July 2008.
  4. PDF Download Tolouei, E., Nesbitt, W.S., Fouras, A. , Carberry, J. & Jackson, S. (2008) A novel scanning method to measure shear rate around a thrombus using micro particle image velocimetry, in Proceedings of the ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference 2008, Pts A & B, Marco Isl, FL, 25-29 June 2008, 881–882.

Monash Teaching experience:

  • Tutor: MAE1041 Introduction to Aerospace Engineering, Monash University Clayton (2006–2009; 2011)
  • Tutor: MEC3458 Experimental Project, Monash University Clayton (2007; 2011)
  • Demonstrator: MEC2404 Fluid Mechanics I, Monash University Clayton (2006–2011)
  • Tutor: MEC2404 Fluid Mechanics I, Monash University Clayton (2010–2011)
  • Tutor: MEC3451 Fluid Mechanics II, Monash University Clayton (2008–2011)
  • Tutor: MEC4404 Professional Practice, Monash University Clayton (2009–2010)
  • Tutor: MAE3402 Aerospace Design Project, Monash University Clayton (2008)
  • Tutor: MEC3452 Design III, Monash University Clayton (2008)
  • Tutor: MEC3454 Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer, Monash University Clayton (2007)
  • Tutor: MEC2405 Thermodynamics, Monash University Clayton (2006)