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    Australians are exposed to 2 millisieverts of 'background' radiation per year
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    15x Melbourne → Singapore → London flights exposes you to 1 millisievert
  • Diagnostic X-rays

    A diagnostic X-ray is the oldest and most common medical radiology procedure. Radiologists use X-rays to help diagnose disease or injury inside your body. A machine directs a small, carefully calculated amount of radiation toward a specific part of the body to produce an image on a film on the other side of the body. Radiologists study the X-ray images to detect and diagnose disease or injury.

  • CT dosage

    Computed Tomography (CT) is currently one of the major contributors to the collective population radiation dose due to the increasing popularity of CT examinations as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. The evolution of CT scanner technology has turned their use from specialized into routine examination. More due diligence is required due to the high radiation dose of CT.

  • Where to from here?

    It is of the utmost importance that both clinical justification as well as technical optimization are implemented to maintain a high benefit to risk ratio. Solid interdisciplinary partnerships and research endeavours between clinical specialists and technology engineers will help to fast track developments in this area.

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LDI Profile

photo-ivan1 photo-ivan2

Ivan Ng

Master of Engineering Science (Research) graduate


Dept. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Monash University Clayton Campus

Supervisors: Professor Andreas Fouras, Professor Kerry Hourigan & Professor David Paganin

Qualifications:

BSc(Phys, Hons) Monash 2008, MEngSci(Res) Monash 2013

Awards:

  • The Visualization Society of Japan (VSJ) Award for Excellent Visualization (2011)

    Surface Topography of Jet Shock Cells in an Hydraulic Analogy. Journal of Visualisation, 13(3), 175–176, doi: 10.1007/s12650-010-0032-3

Masters topic:

Development of a benchtop synchrotron

Details

Coherent X-ray imaging brings benefit in imaging transparent samples such as thin biological samples. The nature of the short wavelength X-rays enhances high resolution imaging. These advantages have many applications in biomedical Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). However, currently coherent X-rays are only available at a synchrotron, which increases the cost and the time for phase contrast imaging, making the technique less medically applicable.

According to Thomson scattering, the collision of the photons and relativistic electrons can generate coherent X-ray photons. This theory makes the generation of coherent X-rays in university laboratories possible. In practice, the number of X-ray photons required for phase contrast imaging has to be greater than 1010 photons per collision. A femtosecond laser would be a desirable light source to produce the required ultra-intensive light pulse.

With the recently installed femtosecond laser, and by focusing both the photon pulse and the electron beam into a spot with a few nanometer in diameter for high particle density collision, we propose to generate a coherent X-ray imaging facility.

Laboratory experience:

Ivan was employed in the Division of Biological Engineering from September 2008 to December 2009 as a Physicist and Research Associate, where he worked on the following research interests: Diffraction physics; photon-electron interactions; optical systems for biomedical imaging; production of X-ray sources for table-top synchrotrons.

Publications:

  1. Ng, I., Paganin, D.M. & Fouras, A. (2012) Optimization of in-line phase contrast particle image velocimetry using a laboratory X-ray source. Journal of Applied Physics, 112, 074701.
    doi: 10.1063/1.4757407
  2. Kumar, V., Ng, I., Sheard, G.J., Brocher, E., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2011) Application of Particle Image Velocimetry and Reference Image Topography to jet shock cells using the hydraulic analogy. Experiments in Fluids, 51(2), 543–551.
    doi: 10.1007/s00348-011-1072-8
  3. Ng, I., Kumar, V., Sheard, G.J., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2011) Experimental study of simultaneous measurement of velocity and surface topography: In the wake of a circular cylinder at low Reynolds number. Experiments in Fluids, 50(3), 587–595.
    doi: 10.1007/s00348-010-0960-7
  4. Ng, I., Kumar, V., Sheard, G.J., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) Surface Topography of Jet Shock Cells in an Hydraulic Analogy. Journal of Visualisation, 13(3), 175–176.
    doi: 10.1007/s12650-010-0032-3

    Recipient of The Visualization Society of Japan (VSJ) Award for Excellent Visualization in 2011

Conferences/Seminars:

  1. PDF Download Kumar, V., Ng, I., Sheard, G.J., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2009) Hydraulic Analogy Examination of Underexpanded Jet Shock Cells using Reference Image Topography, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.
  2. PDF Download Ng, I., Kumar, V., Sheard, G.J., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2009) Experimental study of instantaneous measurement of velocity and surface topography in a wake of the circular cylinder at low Reynolds number, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.