• Fun Facts

    Australians are exposed to 2 millisieverts of 'background' radiation per year
    A CT of the chest can be roughly equivalent to having 100 single chest X-rays
    15x Melbourne → Singapore → London flights exposes you to 1 millisievert
  • Diagnostic X-rays

    A diagnostic X-ray is the oldest and most common medical radiology procedure. Radiologists use X-rays to help diagnose disease or injury inside your body. A machine directs a small, carefully calculated amount of radiation toward a specific part of the body to produce an image on a film on the other side of the body. Radiologists study the X-ray images to detect and diagnose disease or injury.

  • CT dosage

    Computed Tomography (CT) is currently one of the major contributors to the collective population radiation dose due to the increasing popularity of CT examinations as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. The evolution of CT scanner technology has turned their use from specialized into routine examination. More due diligence is required due to the high radiation dose of CT.

  • Where to from here?

    It is of the utmost importance that both clinical justification as well as technical optimization are implemented to maintain a high benefit to risk ratio. Solid interdisciplinary partnerships and research endeavours between clinical specialists and technology engineers will help to fast track developments in this area.


LDI Alumni Profile


Michael Curtis

PhD graduate

Dept. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Monash University Clayton Campus

Supervisors: Professor Andreas Fouras, Associate Professor Greg Sheard & Professor Kerry Hourigan


BEng(Mechatronics, Hons) University of Canterbury NZ 2008, PhD Monash 2016

PhD topic:

Realtime manipulation of cells using fluid flow


Biological cells exert a number of interesting mechanical properties and are able to both react to external mechanical stimulus and modify their mechanical properties in response to external (biochemical) stimulus, a phenomenon known as mechanotransduction. Some examples of cells which exhibit mechanotransduction include platelet cells (the cells in the blood responsible for clotting); the cells attached to the fine hair-like cilia in the inner-ear and heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). In addition, various disorders cause modification of cell mechanical properties, including the malaria parasite (which attacks haemoglobin); and all forms of cancers. Using fluid flow around the cell to exert controllable and variable forces, this project will investigate the mechanotransduction behaviour of individual cells in isolation to assist in gaining an understanding of the mechanical behaviours of diseased cells.


  1. Curtis, M.D., Sheard, G.J. & Fouras, A. (2011) Feedback control system simulator for the control of biological cells in microfluidic cross slots and integrated microfluidic systems. Lab on a Chip, 11(14), 2343–2351.
    doi: 10.1039/C1LC20191C

Teaching experience:

  • Tutor: TRC3500 Sensors and Artificial Perception, Monash University Clayton (2009–2012)