• Fun Facts

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    Australians are exposed to 2 millisieverts of 'background' radiation per year
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    A CT of the chest can be roughly equivalent to having 100 single chest X-rays
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    15x Melbourne → Singapore → London flights exposes you to 1 millisievert
  • Diagnostic X-rays

    A diagnostic X-ray is the oldest and most common medical radiology procedure. Radiologists use X-rays to help diagnose disease or injury inside your body. A machine directs a small, carefully calculated amount of radiation toward a specific part of the body to produce an image on a film on the other side of the body. Radiologists study the X-ray images to detect and diagnose disease or injury.

  • CT dosage

    Computed Tomography (CT) is currently one of the major contributors to the collective population radiation dose due to the increasing popularity of CT examinations as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. The evolution of CT scanner technology has turned their use from specialized into routine examination. More due diligence is required due to the high radiation dose of CT.

  • Where to from here?

    It is of the utmost importance that both clinical justification as well as technical optimization are implemented to maintain a high benefit to risk ratio. Solid interdisciplinary partnerships and research endeavours between clinical specialists and technology engineers will help to fast track developments in this area.

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LDI Alumni Profile

photo-rajeev1

Rajeev Samarage

PhD graduate


Dept. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Monash University Clayton Campus

Supervisors: Professor Andreas Fouras, Dr Josie Carberry & Professor Kerry Hourigan

Qualifications:

BEng(Mech, Hons) Monash 2009, PhD Monash 2016

Awards:

  • Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Award (2012)

    MST awards the Outstanding Paper Award for the best paper published in the journal for the calendar year. Polynomial element velocimetry (PEV): a technique for continuous in-plane velocity and velocity gradient measurements for low Reynolds number flows receives the award of Best Fluid Mechanics paper published in MST during 2012.

PhD topic:

Advances in Particle Image Velocimetry

Details:

Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a technique that has been used for over two decades to obtain flow measurements in fluid dynamics studies. Standard PIV systems consist of a laser light sheet (typically a Nd:YAG laser), illuminating the flow section which has been seeded with particles. A series of images of the particles in the flow are captured using high speed digital cameras (CCD) with a short time interval apart between image frames. These images are then divided into small interrogation windows. A cross-correlation function is applied into each window between successive pairs to obtain the displacement field of the particles between the two images.

The PIV technique has received increasing interest over the past two decades, especially in medical applications as the method of choice for non- intrusive flow measurement. However, the accuracy of PIV measurement is adversely affected by inherent challenges to imaging that prevail in biological flows, thus limiting the scope of practical applications for the technique. This research investigates the factors by which time-averaged PIV measurements are affected under stringent imaging conditions. This research investigates the calculation of the velocity gradient from the PIV velocity field, and the means by which this could be further optimised. Other areas of research include development of a novel microscopy imaging method via the application of PIV.

Publications:

  1. Jamison, R.A., Samarage, C.R., Bryson-Richardson, R.J. & Fouras, A. (2013) In vivo wall shear measurements within the developing zebrafish heart. PLoS One, 8(10), e75722.
    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075722
  2. Ismadi, M.Z.P., Higgins, S.P.A., Samarage, C.R., Paganin, D.M., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2013) Optimisation of a stirred bioreactor through the use of a novel Holographic Correlation Velocimetry flow measurement technique. PLoS One, 8(6): e65714.
    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065714
  3. Samarage, C.R., Carberry, J., Sheard, G.J. & Fouras, A. (2012) Polynomial Element Velocimetry (PEV): A technique for continuous in-plane velocity and velocity gradient measurements for low Reynolds number flows. Measurement Science and Technology, 23(10), 105304.
    doi: 10.1088/0957-0233/23/10/105304
  4. Samarage, C.R., Carberry, J., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2012) Optimisation of temporal averaging processes in PIV. Experiments in Fluids, 52(3), 617–631
    doi: 10.1007/s00348-011-1080-8

Conferences/Seminars:

  1. Fouras, A., Dubsky, S., Samarage, C.R., Thurgood, J.B., Henon, Y., Zosky, G., & Hooper, S.B. (2014) Local lung function and airway size response during methacholine challenge and salbutamol treatment measured using high-resolution dynamic CT and functional lung imaging. Proc. American Thoracic Society 2014 International Conference — ATS 2014, San Diego, California, U.S.A., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 189, A2396. (16–21 May 2014).
  2. Stahr, C.S., Samarage, C.R., Parsons, D.W., Dubsky, S., Donnelley, M., Thurgood, J.B., Henon, Y., Siu, K.K.W. & Fouras, A. (2014) Regional image based pulmonary function testing detects CF lung disease earlier than conventional PFT. Proc. American Thoracic Society 2014 International Conference — ATS 2014, San Diego, California, U.S.A., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 189, A2837. (16–21 May 2014).
  3. Samarage, C.R., Sheard, G.J., Smyth, I., Bryson–Richardson, R.J. & Fouras, A. (2012) Application of a novel diffraction-based tomography method for imaging biological samples. SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics — Developments in X-ray Tomography VIII, San Diego, U.S.A., 12–16 August 2012.
  4. PDF Download Samarage, C.R., Carberry, J., Sheard, G.J. & Fouras, A. (2011) Polynomial element velocimetry (PEV): A novel method for better than pixel resolution measurements, in Proc. 9th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV11, Kobe, Japan, 21–23 July 2011.
  5. PDF Download Higgins, S.P.A., Samarage, C.R., Paganin, D.M. & Fouras, A. (2011) Holographic Correlation Velocimetry, in Proc. 9th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV11, Kobe, Japan, 21–23 July 2011.
  6. Samarage, C.R., Carberry, J., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) Optimisation of temporal averaging processes in PIV, 15th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 5-8 July 2010.
  7. PDF Download Samarage, C.R., Carberry, J., Fouras, A. & Hourigan, K. (2009) Optimisation of correlation and vector averaging processess in PIV, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.

Teaching experience:

  • Tutor & Designer: MEC2404/CHE2161/MAE2404 Fluid Mechanics I, Monash University Clayton (2011–2012)
  • Tutor: MEC2404 Fluid Mechanics I, Monash University Clayton (2008–2012)
  • Demonstrator: ENG4700 Biomedical Imaging and Sensing, Monash University Clayton (S1 2012)
  • Tutor: MEC3458 Experimental Project, Monash University Clayton (2009–2010)