• Fun Facts

    Australians are exposed to 2 millisieverts of 'background' radiation per year
    A CT of the chest can be roughly equivalent to having 100 single chest X-rays
    15x Melbourne → Singapore → London flights exposes you to 1 millisievert
  • Diagnostic X-rays

    A diagnostic X-ray is the oldest and most common medical radiology procedure. Radiologists use X-rays to help diagnose disease or injury inside your body. A machine directs a small, carefully calculated amount of radiation toward a specific part of the body to produce an image on a film on the other side of the body. Radiologists study the X-ray images to detect and diagnose disease or injury.

  • CT dosage

    Computed Tomography (CT) is currently one of the major contributors to the collective population radiation dose due to the increasing popularity of CT examinations as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. The evolution of CT scanner technology has turned their use from specialized into routine examination. More due diligence is required due to the high radiation dose of CT.

  • Where to from here?

    It is of the utmost importance that both clinical justification as well as technical optimization are implemented to maintain a high benefit to risk ratio. Solid interdisciplinary partnerships and research endeavours between clinical specialists and technology engineers will help to fast track developments in this area.


LDI Alumni Profile


Richard Carnibella

PhD graduate

Dept. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Monash University Clayton Campus

Supervisors: Professor Andreas Fouras, Dr Marcus Kitchen & Professor Kerry Hourigan


MBBS Univeristy of Melbourne 2001, BEng(Mechatronics, Hons) Monash 2010, PhD Monash 2016

PhD topic:

Quantitative analysis of size distributions in granular and porous materials from X-ray images


Granular and porous materials and systems, are commonly found in nature and additionally are important in many areas of science and engineering. For example soil and snow, foams and cavitation and granulation processes. Since the properties and behaviour of such systems are often related to the size and arrangement of their grains or pores, there is a need for techniques to measure these parameters. For opaque samples, computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to explore the 3D structure of these materials. However, for dynamic and biological samples, CT has the drawbacks of being slow and delivering large doses of radiation. My research to date has focussed on developing new techniques of extracting three-dimensional information on particle size and organisation from two-dimensional X-ray projection images. Techniques, which would be suited to imaging of dynamic and biological systems.


  1. Carnibella, R.P., Kitchen, M.J. & Fouras, A. (2014) Single-shot X-ray measurement of alveolar size distributions. Proc. SPIE 9038, Medical Imaging 2014: Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging, 90380V (March 13, 2014).
    doi: 10.1117/12.2043415
  2. Carnibella, R.P., Kitchen, M.J. & Fouras, A. (2013) Decoding the structure of granular and porous materials from speckled phase contrast X-ray images. Optics Express, 21(16), 19153–19162.
    doi: 10.1364/OE.21.019153
  3. Carnibella, R.P., Fouras, A. & Kitchen, M.J. (2012) Single exposure, dual energy subtraction X-ray imaging using a synchrotron source. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 19, 954-959.
    doi: 10.1107/S0909049512033900
  4. Thurgood, J.B., Hooper, S.B., Siew, M.L., Wallace, M.J., Dubsky, S., Kitchen, M.J., Jamison, R.A., Carnibella, R.P. & Fouras, A. (2012) Functional Lung Imaging During HFV in Preterm Rabbits. PLoS One, 7(10), e48122.
    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048122
  5. Carnibella, R.P., Kitchen, M.J. & Fouras, A. (2012) Determining particle size distributions from a single projection image. Optics Express, 20(14), 15962–15968.
    doi: 10.1364/OE.20.015962

Teaching experience:

  • Tutor: TRC3000 Third Year Mechatronics Project II, Monash University Clayton (2011)