• Fun Facts

    Australians are exposed to 2 millisieverts of 'background' radiation per year
    A CT of the chest can be roughly equivalent to having 100 single chest X-rays
    15x Melbourne → Singapore → London flights exposes you to 1 millisievert
  • Diagnostic X-rays

    A diagnostic X-ray is the oldest and most common medical radiology procedure. Radiologists use X-rays to help diagnose disease or injury inside your body. A machine directs a small, carefully calculated amount of radiation toward a specific part of the body to produce an image on a film on the other side of the body. Radiologists study the X-ray images to detect and diagnose disease or injury.

  • CT dosage

    Computed Tomography (CT) is currently one of the major contributors to the collective population radiation dose due to the increasing popularity of CT examinations as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. The evolution of CT scanner technology has turned their use from specialized into routine examination. More due diligence is required due to the high radiation dose of CT.

  • Where to from here?

    It is of the utmost importance that both clinical justification as well as technical optimization are implemented to maintain a high benefit to risk ratio. Solid interdisciplinary partnerships and research endeavours between clinical specialists and technology engineers will help to fast track developments in this area.


LDI Alumni Profile


Simon Higgins

Former LDI Lab Manager
Masters Graduate

Dept. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Monash University Clayton Campus

Supervisors: Professor Andreas Fouras & Professor Kerry Hourigan


BEng(Mech, hons.) Monash 2007, MEngSc(Res) Monash 2014

Research Interests:

Design and development of advanced x-ray machines and scanners. This involves integrating the latest x-ray technology and OEM components to make devices that are critical for researches workflow and allow advanced quantitative measurements of biological samples. The latest device utilises a liquid metal anode to produce high power and very high quality x-rays for live imaging applications.

  Please visit our Research page to see some videos of LDI's collaborative research endeavours.

Masters topic:

Development of Holograph Correlation Velocimetry


A method for measuring three dimensional (3D) velocity of a fluid at high speed, by combining a correlation-based approach with in-line holography. While this method utilises tracer particles contained within the flow, the method does not require the reconstruction of individual particle fields. This has been termed Holographic Correlation Velocimetry (HCV), and subsequently apply it to both synthetic and laboratory data. This system is based on in-line holography and it is very efficient with regard to the use of light, as it does not rely on side scattering. This efficiency could be utilised to create a very high quality system at a modest cost. Alternatively, this efficiency makes the system appropriate for high-speed flows and low exposure times, which is essential in dynamic systems such as industrial particle production.


  1. Ismadi, M.Z.P., Higgins, S.P.A., Samarage, C.R., Paganin, D.M., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2013) Optimisation of a stirred bioreactor through the use of a novel Holographic Correlation Velocimetry flow measurement technique. Accepted for publication in PLoS One.
    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065714
  2. Ackerly, T., Crosbie, J.C., Fouras, A., Sheard, G.J., Higgins, S.P.A. & Lewis, R.A. (2011) High resolution optical calorimetry for synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy. Journal of Instrumentation, 6, P03003.
    doi: 10.1088/1748-0221/6/03/P03003
  3. Dubsky, S., Jamison, R.A., Higgins, S., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K & Fouras, A. (2012) Computed Tomographic X-ray Velocimetry for simultaneous 3D measurement of velocity and geometry in opaque vessels. Experiments in Fluids, 52(3), 543–554.
    doi: 10.1007/s00348-010-1006-x
  4. Chua, C.S., Higgins, S. & Fouras, A. (2010) An asynchronous high-speed synchrotron shutter. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 17, 624–630.
    doi: 10.1107/S0909049510025847
  5. PDF Download Chua, C.S., Sheard, G.J., Dubsky, S., Higgins, S., Jamison, R.A., Fouras, A. & Hourigan, K. (2009) Particle image velocimetry of non-axisymmetric stenosis models, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.
  6. PDF Download Higgins, S., Sheard, G.J., Fouras, A. & Hourigan, K., (2009) Computer-aided optimisation of a constant shear-rate micro-channel contraction, ANZIAM Journal, 50, C1004–C1016. Also in Proc. 14th Biennial Computational Techniques and Applications Conference (CTAC'08), Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia, 13-16 July 2008.


  1. PDF Download Higgins, S.P.A., Samarage, C.R., Paganin, D.M. & Fouras, A. (2011) Holographic Correlation Velocimetry, in Proc. 9th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV11, Kobe, Japan, 21–23 July 2011.
  2. Dubsky, S., Jamison, R.A., Higgins, S., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) Computed tomographic X-ray velocimetry for simultaneous measurement of 3D velocity and object geometry in opaque vessels, 15th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 5-8 July 2010.
  3. Jamison, R.A., Dubsky, S., Higgins, S., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) Synchrotron X-ray PIV of haemodynamic forces within a stenosed in vitro model at physiological flow rates, 15th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 5-8 July 2010.
  4. Higgins, S., Chua, C.S., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) A sub-millisecond asynchronous X-ray shutter (The Absence of Light: A high speed shutter used for ultra-fast imaging and dose control for X-ray beams), in the Poster Session for The Meetings of Biology and Synchrotron Radiation & Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation — BSR 2010 & MASR 2010, Melbourne, Australia, 16–19 February 2010.
  5. Crosbie, J.C., Lewis, R.A., Stevenson, A., Hall, C.J., Midgley, S., Sprung, C.N., Cholewa, M., Higgins, S., Ackerly, T., Gagliardi, F., Maskimenko, A., Hausermann, D. & Rogers, P.A.W. (2010) Dosimetry for synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy at the Australian Synchrotron Imaging & Medical Beamline, in the Poster Session for The Meetings of Biology and Synchrotron Radiation & Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation — BSR 2010 & MASR 2010, Melbourne, Australia, 16–19 February 2010.

Teaching experience:

  • Unit Coordinator: IDE3814 Materials and Manufacturing 2, Monash University Caulfield (2013)
  • Lab Demonstrator: ENG4700 Biomedical Imaging and Sensing, Monash University Clayton (2011–2013)
  • Unit Coordinator: IDE2811 Mechanics and electronics for industrial design, Monash University Caulfield (2011–2013)
  • Tutor: ENG1061 Engineering Profession, Monash University Clayton (2009–2010)
  • Tutor: MAE2402 Engineering Design I, Monash University Clayton (2009)