• Fun Facts

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    Australians are exposed to 2 millisieverts of 'background' radiation per year
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    A CT of the chest can be roughly equivalent to having 100 single chest X-rays
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    15x Melbourne → Singapore → London flights exposes you to 1 millisievert
  • Diagnostic X-rays

    A diagnostic X-ray is the oldest and most common medical radiology procedure. Radiologists use X-rays to help diagnose disease or injury inside your body. A machine directs a small, carefully calculated amount of radiation toward a specific part of the body to produce an image on a film on the other side of the body. Radiologists study the X-ray images to detect and diagnose disease or injury.

  • CT dosage

    Computed Tomography (CT) is currently one of the major contributors to the collective population radiation dose due to the increasing popularity of CT examinations as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. The evolution of CT scanner technology has turned their use from specialized into routine examination. More due diligence is required due to the high radiation dose of CT.

  • Where to from here?

    It is of the utmost importance that both clinical justification as well as technical optimization are implemented to maintain a high benefit to risk ratio. Solid interdisciplinary partnerships and research endeavours between clinical specialists and technology engineers will help to fast track developments in this area.

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LDI Alumni Profile

photo-steve photo-steve2

Dr Stephen Dubsky

PhD graduate
Former LDI postdoctoral fellow


Dept. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Monash University Clayton Campus

Supervisors: Professor Andreas Fouras & Professor Kerry Hourigan

Qualifications:

BEng(Mech, Hons) Monash 2006, BTech(Aero) Monash 2006, PhD Monash 2013

Awards:

  • Bill Melbourne Award (2014)

    Most outstanding 2013 PhD Thesis in the Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Australia.
  • Australian Synchrotron Stephen Wilkins Medal (2013)

    Awarded to the most outstanding Australian or New Zealand PhD work undertaken at the Australian Synchrotron/Australian National Beamline Facility/under the auspices of the International Synchrotron Access Program (ISAP) or the ASRP, over the past two years.

Research Interests:

Development of advanced functional X-ray imaging technologies, with particular focus on 4D tomography and lung imaging.

  Please visit our Research page to see some videos of LDI's collaborative research endeavours.

Details:

My research focuses on the development of advanced imaging and analysis methods for 4D motion measurement in biological samples, utilising X-ray imaging. My expertise spans the entire development process from hardware/experimental design to algorithm and software development.

My current research focus is on the advancement of functional lung imaging technologies utilizing phase-contrast X-ray imaging and tomographic techniques, the application of these technologies in medical research, and the development of related lung diagnostics. I am also working towards commercialization of these technologies to realise their real-world clinical impact.

Publications:

  1. Thurgood, J.B., Hooper, S.B., Siew, M.L., Wallace, M.J., Dubsky, S., Kitchen, M.J., Jamison, R.A., Carnibella, R.P. & Fouras, A. (2012) Functional Lung Imaging During HFV in Preterm Rabbits. PLoS One, 7(10), e48122.
    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048122
  2. Jamison, R.A., Siu, K.K.W., Dubsky, S., Armitage, J.A. & Fouras, A. (2012) X-ray Velocimetry within the ex vivo carotid artery. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 19, 1050-1055.
    doi: 10.1107/S0909049512033912
  3. Dubsky, S., Hooper, S.B., Siu, K.K.W. & Fouras, A. (2012) Synchrotron-based dynamic computed tomography of tissue motion for regional lung function measurement. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 9(74), 2213–2224.
    doi: 10.1098/rsif.2012.0116
  4. Fouras, A., Allison, B.J., Kitchen, M.J., Dubsky, S., Nguyen, J.T., Hourigan, K.,Siu, K.K.W., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N., Lewis, R.A., Wallace, M.J. & Hooper, S.B. (2012) Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 40(5), 1160–1169.
    doi: 10.1007/s10439-011-0493-0
  5. Jamison, R.A., Dubsky, S., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2011) X-ray Velocimetry and haemodynamic forces within a stenosed femoral model at physiological flow rates. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 39(6), 1643–1653.
    doi: 10.1007/s10439-011-0260-2
  6. Dubsky, S., Jamison, R.A., Higgins, S., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K & Fouras, A. (2012) Computed Tomographic X-ray Velocimetry for simultaneous 3D measurement of velocity and geometry in opaque vessels. Experiments in Fluids, 52(3), 543–554.
    doi: 10.1007/s00348-010-1006-x
  7. Dubsky, S., Jamison, R.A., Irvine, S.C., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) Computed tomographic X-ray velocimetry, 6th International Conference on Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation, American Institute of Physics (AIP) Conference Proceedings, 1266, 35–38.
    doi: 10.1063/1.3478193
  8. Kitchen, M.J., Habib, A., Fouras, A., Dubsky, S., Lewis, R.A., Wallace, M.J. & Hooper, S.B. (2010) A new design for high stability pressure-controlled ventilation for small animal lung imaging. Journal of Instrumentation, 5(2), T02002.
    doi: 10.1088/1748-0221/5/02/T02002
  9. Irvine, S.C., Paganin, D.M., Jamison, R.A., Dubsky, S. & Fouras, A. (2010) Vector tomographic X-ray phase contrast velocimetry utilizing dynamic blood speckle. Optics Express, 18(3), 2368–2379.
    doi: 10.1364/OE.18.002368
  10. Dubsky, S., Jamison, R.A., Irvine, S.C., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) Computed tomographic X-ray velocimetry. Applied Physics Letters, 96(2), 023702.
    doi: 10.1063/1.3285173
  11. Fouras, A., Kitchen, M.J., Dubsky, S., Lewis, R.A., Hooper, S. & Hourigan, K. (2009) "The past, present and future of X-ray technology for in vivo imaging of function and form", invited submission to Journal of Applied Physics, 105, 102009: 1–14. Also published in Virtual Journal of Biological Physics Research.
    doi: 10.1063/1.3115643
  12. Irvine, S.C., Paganin, D.M., Dubsky, S., Lewis, R.A. & Fouras, A. (2008) Phase retrieval for improved 3-D velocimetric analysis of X-ray blood flow speckle patterns, Applied Physics Letters, 93, 153901: 1–3.
    doi: 10.1063/1.3001592

Conferences/Seminars:

  1. Dubsky, S., Thurgood, J.B., Henon, Y., & Fouras, A. (2014) A low dose, high spatio-temporal resolution system for real-time four-dimensional lung function imaging. Proc. American Thoracic Society 2014 International Conference — ATS 2014, San Diego, California, U.S.A., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 189, A4316. (16–21 May 2014).
  2. Fouras, A., Dubsky, S., Samarage, C.R., Thurgood, J.B., Henon, Y., Zosky, G., & Hooper, S.B. (2014) Local lung function and airway size response during methacholine challenge and salbutamol treatment measured using high-resolution dynamic CT and functional lung imaging. Proc. American Thoracic Society 2014 International Conference — ATS 2014, San Diego, California, U.S.A., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 189, A2396. (16–21 May 2014).
  3. Stahr, C.S., Samarage, C.R., Parsons, D.W., Dubsky, S., Donnelley, M., Thurgood, J.B., Henon, Y., Siu, K.K.W. & Fouras, A. (2014) Regional image based pulmonary function testing detects CF lung disease earlier than conventional PFT. Proc. American Thoracic Society 2014 International Conference — ATS 2014, San Diego, California, U.S.A., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 189, A2837. (16–21 May 2014).
  4. Thurgood, J.B., Dubsky, S., Henon, Y., Jesudason, E. & Fouras, A. (2014) Heart-Lung Interactions: A Vital Source Of Gas Mixing Within The Lungs. Proc. American Thoracic Society 2014 International Conference — ATS 2014, San Diego, California, U.S.A., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 189, A6275. (16–21 May 2014).
  5. PDF Download Xiong, T., Ilmi, H., Hoarau, Y., Choquet, P., Goetz, C Fouras, A., Dubsky, S., Braza, M., Sainlos-Brillac, S., Plourabou√©, F., & Lo Jacono, D. (2012) Flow and particles deposition in anatomically realistic airways. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering 2012, 15(S1), 56–58.
  6. Thurgood, J.B., Dubsky, S., Siu, K.K.W., Wallace, M.J., Siew, M.L., Hooper, S.B. & Fouras, A. (2012) Mapping cardiogenic oscillations using synchrotron based phase contrast CT imaging. SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics — Developments in X-ray Tomography VIII, San Diego, U.S.A., 12–16 August 2012.
  7. PDF Download Dubsky, S., Hooper, S.B., Siu, K.K.W. & Fouras, A. (2011) Dynamic four-dimensional X-ray PIV of the lung, in Proc. 9th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV11, Kobe, Japan, 21–23 July 2011.
  8. Dubsky, S., Jamison, R.A., Higgins, S., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) Computed tomographic X-ray velocimetry for simultaneous measurement of 3D velocity and object geometry in opaque vessels, 15th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 5-8 July 2010.
  9. Fouras, A., Dubsky, S., Nguyen, J., Hourigan, K., Kitchen, M.J., Allison, B.J., Wallace, M.J., Siew, M.L., Siu, K.K.W., Lewis, R.A., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N. & Hooper, S. (2010) In-vivo Synchrotron PIV for the measurement of airway motion, 15th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 5-8 July 2010.
  10. Jamison, R.A., Dubsky, S., Higgins, S., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) Synchrotron X-ray PIV of haemodynamic forces within a stenosed in vitro model at physiological flow rates, 15th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 5-8 July 2010.
  11. Dubsky, S., Jamison, R.A., Irvine, S.C., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) Computed tomographic X-ray velocimetry, in Proc. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation — MASR 2010, Melbourne, Australia, 16–18 February 2010.
  12. Fouras, A., Allison, B.J., Kitchen, M.J., Dubsky, S., Nguyen, J., Hourigan, K., Siu, K.K.W., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N., Lewis, R.A., Wallace, M.J., & Hooper, S. (2010) Detection of lung pathology using X-ray velocimetry, in Proc. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation — MASR 2010, Melbourne, Australia, 16–18 February 2010.
  13. PDF Download Chua, C.S., Sheard, G.J., Dubsky, S., Higgins, S., Jamison, R.A., Fouras, A. & Hourigan, K. (2009) Particle image velocimetry of non-axisymmetric stenosis models, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.
  14. PDF Download Fouras, A., Dubsky, S., Nguyen, J., Hourigan, K., Kitchen, M.J., Allison, B.J., Wallace, M.J., Siew, M.L., Siu, K.K.W., Lewis, R.A., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N. & Hooper, S.B. (2009) In-vivo Synchrotron PIV for the measurement of airway motion, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.
  15. PDF Download Irvine, S.C., Paganin, D.M., Dubsky, S., Lewis, R.A. & Fouras, A. (2009) Phase retrieval for improved multi-dimensional velocimetric analysis of X-ray blood flow speckle patterns, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.
  16. PDF Download Jamison, R.A., Fouras, A., Dubsky, S., Irvine, S.C., Siu, K.K.W., & Hourigan, K. (2009) Synchrotron X-ray PIV of blood flow in an optically opaque bifurcation model, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.
  17. Dubsky, S., Fouras, A., Irvine, S.C., Siu, K.K.W. & Hourigan, K., (2008) Three component, three-dimensional X-ray particle image velocimetry using multiple projections, 14th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 7-10 July 2008.
  18. PDF Download Fouras, A., Lo Jacono, D., Nguyen, C.V., Dubsky, S. & Hourigan, K., (2008) Volumetric correlation PIV: A new technique for 3D velocity vector field measurement, 14th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 7-10 July 2008.

Teaching experience:

  • Lecturer: ENG4700 Biomedical Imaging and Sensing, Monash University Clayton (2012—2013)
  • Guest Lecturer: ENG4700 Biomedical Imaging and Sensing, Monash University Clayton (S1 2011)
  • Tutor: ENG1040 Engineering Dynamics, Monash University Clayton (2009—2010)
  • Tutor: MAE2402 Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer, Monash University Clayton (2008)