• Fun Facts

    Post
    Australians are exposed to 2 millisieverts of 'background' radiation per year
    Post
    A CT of the chest can be roughly equivalent to having 100 single chest X-rays
    Post
    15x Melbourne → Singapore → London flights exposes you to 1 millisievert
  • Diagnostic X-rays

    A diagnostic X-ray is the oldest and most common medical radiology procedure. Radiologists use X-rays to help diagnose disease or injury inside your body. A machine directs a small, carefully calculated amount of radiation toward a specific part of the body to produce an image on a film on the other side of the body. Radiologists study the X-ray images to detect and diagnose disease or injury.

  • CT dosage

    Computed Tomography (CT) is currently one of the major contributors to the collective population radiation dose due to the increasing popularity of CT examinations as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. The evolution of CT scanner technology has turned their use from specialized into routine examination. More due diligence is required due to the high radiation dose of CT.

  • Where to from here?

    It is of the utmost importance that both clinical justification as well as technical optimization are implemented to maintain a high benefit to risk ratio. Solid interdisciplinary partnerships and research endeavours between clinical specialists and technology engineers will help to fast track developments in this area.

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Intellectual Property

The Laboratory for Dynamic Imaging generated a series of global patents between 2008—2013. All public disclosure is made at the discretion of the inventors. For further information, contact the researchers directly.


2009 publications

Invited review papers:


  1. Hooper, S.B., Kitchen, M.J., Siew, M.L., Lewis, R.A., Fouras, A., te Pas, A., Siu, K.K.W., Yagi, N., Uesugi, K. & Wallace, M. (2009) Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth using Phase-contrast X-ray imaging, Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 36(1), 117–125.

    doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2008.05109.x
  2. Fouras, A., Dusting, J., Sheridan, J., Kawahashi, M., Hirahara, H. & Hourigan, K. (2009) "Engineering Imaging – Using Particle Image Velocimetry to See Physiology in a New Light", invited submission to Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 36(2), 238–247.

    doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2008.05102.x
  3. Fouras, A., Kitchen, M.J., Dubsky, S., Lewis, R.A., Hooper, S. & Hourigan, K. (2009) "The past, present and future of X-ray technology for in vivo imaging of function and form", invited submission to Journal of Applied Physics, 105, 102009: 1–14. Also published in Virtual Journal of Biological Physics Research.

    doi: 10.1063/1.3115643  &  http://www.vjbio.org/

Peer reviewed journal papers:


  1. PDF Download Chua, C.S., Sheard, G.J., Ryan, K. & Fouras, A. (2009) Changes in flow and wall shear stresses through arterial constrictions offset from the vessel centre, ANZIAM Journal, 50, C744–C759.
    Also in Proc. 14th Biennial Computational Techniques and Applications Conference (CTAC'08), Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia, 13-16 July 2008.
  2. Donnelley, M., Morgan, K.S., Fouras, A., Skinner, W., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N., Siu, K.K.W., & Parsons, D.W. (2009) Real-time non-invasive detection of inhalable particulates delivered into live mouse airways. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 16(4).

    doi: 10.1107/S0909049509012618
  3. Fouras, A., Lo Jacono, D., Nguyen C.V., & Hourigan, K. (2009) Volumetric Correlation PIV: a New Technique for 3D Velocity Vector Field Measurement. Experiments in Fluids, 47(4), 569–577.

    doi: 10.1007/s00348-009-0616-7
  4. PDF Download Higgins, S., Sheard, G.J., Fouras, A. & Hourigan, K. (2009) Computer-aided optimisation of a constant shear-rate micro-channel contraction, ANZIAM Journal, 50, C1004–C1016.
    Also in Proc. 14th Biennial Computational Techniques and Applications Conference (CTAC'08), Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia, 13-16 July 2008.
  5. PDF Download Jamison, R.A., Sheard, G.J., Ryan, K. & Fouras, A. (2009) The validity of axisymmetric assumptions when investigating pulsatile biological flows, ANZIAM Journal, 50, C713–C728.
    Also in Proc. 14th Biennial Computational Techniques and Applications Conference (CTAC'08), Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia, 13-16 July 2008.
  6. Nesbitt, W.S., Westein, E., Lopez, F.J.T., Tolouei, E., Mitchell, A., Fu, J., Carberry, J., Fouras, A. & Jackson, S.P. (2009) A shear gradient–dependent platelet aggregation mechanism drives thrombus formation, Nature Medicine, 15, 665–673.

    doi: 10.1038/nm.1955
  7. Siew, M.L., te Pas, A.B., Wallace, M.J., Kitchen, M.J., Lewis, R.A., Fouras, A., Morley, C.J., Davis, P.G., Yagi, N., Uesugi, K. & Hooper, S.B. (2009) Positive end expiratory pressure enhances development of a functional residual capacity in preterm rabbits ventilated from birth, Journal of Applied Physiology, 106(5), 1487–1493.

    doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.91591.2008
  8. Siew, M.L., Wallace, M.J., Kitchen, M.J., Lewis, R.A., Fouras, A., te Pas, A.B., Yagi, N., Uesugi, K., Siu, K.K.W. & Hooper, S.B. (2009) Inspiration regulates the rate and temporal pattern of lung liquid clearance and lung aeration at birth, Journal of Applied Physiology, 106(6), 1888–1895.

    doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.91526.2008
  9. te Pas, A.B., Siew, M.L., Wallace, M.J., Kitchen, M.J., Fouras, A., Lewis, R.A, Yagi, N., Uesugi, K., Donath, S., Davis, P.J., Morley, C.J. & Hooper, S.B. (2009) Establishing functional residual capacity at birth: the effect of sustained inflation and positive end expiratory pressure in a preterm rabbit model, Pediatric Research, 65(5), 537–541.

    doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e31819da21b
  10. te Pas, A.B., Siew, M.L., Wallace, M.J., Kitchen, M.J., Fouras, A., Lewis, R.A, Yagi, N., Uesugi, K., Donath, S., Davis, P.J., Morley, C.J. & Hooper, S.B. (2009) Effect of sustained inflation length on establishing functional residual capacity at birth in ventilated premature rabbits, Pediatric Research, 66(3), 295–300.

    doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181b1bca4

Conference Papers:


  1. PDF Download Chua, C.S., Sheard, G.J., Dubsky, S., Higgins, S., Jamison, R.A., Fouras, A. & Hourigan, K. (2009) Particle image velocimetry of non-axisymmetric stenosis models, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.
  2. PDF Download Fouras, A., Dubsky, S., Nguyen, J., Hourigan, K., Kitchen, M.J., Allison, B.J., Wallace, M.J., Siew, M.L., Siu, K.K.W., Lewis, R.A., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N. & Hooper, S.B. (2009) In-vivo Synchrotron PIV for the measurement of airway motion, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.
  3. PDF Download Irvine, S.C., Paganin, D.M., Dubsky, S., Lewis, R.A. & Fouras, A. (2009) Phase retrieval for improved multi-dimensional velocimetric analysis of X-ray blood flow speckle patterns, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.
  4. PDF Download Jamison, R.A., Fouras, A., Dubsky, S., Irvine, S.C., Siu, K.K.W., & Hourigan, K. (2009) Synchrotron X-ray PIV of blood flow in an optically opaque bifurcation model, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.
  5. PDF Download Kumar, V., Ng, I., Sheard, G.J., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2009) Hydraulic Analogy Examination of Underexpanded Jet Shock Cells using Reference Image Topography, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.
  6. PDF Download Ng, I., Kumar, V., Sheard, G.J., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2009) Experimental study of instantaneous measurement of velocity and surface topography in a wake of the circular cylinder at low Reynolds number, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.
  7. PDF Download Nguyen, C.V., Fouras, A. & Carberry, J. (2009) Image Overlapping to Improve Micro PIV Accuracy, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.
  8. PDF Download Nguyen, C.V., Fouras, A. & Carberry, J. (2009) Volumetric Correlation PIV to Measure Particle Correlation and Velocity of Micro Flows, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.
  9. PDF Download Samarage, C.R., Carberry, J., Fouras, A. & Hourigan, K. (2009) Optimisation of correlation and vector averaging processess in PIV, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.
  10. PDF Download Tolouei, E., Fouras, A. & Carberry, J. (2009) In vitro micro PIV measurements of velocity profiles near a wall, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09, Melbourne, Australia, 25–28 August 2009.
  11. Donnelley, M.W., Morgan, K., Fouras, A., Skinner, W., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N., Siu, K.K.W. & Parsons, D.W. (2009) Individual particulate mucocillary transit analysis using synchrotron X-ray imaging, in Pediatric Pulmonology, Suppl. 32, 242–242, Meeting abstract: 90.