• Fun Facts

    Post
    Australians are exposed to 2 millisieverts of 'background' radiation per year
    Post
    A CT of the chest can be roughly equivalent to having 100 single chest X-rays
    Post
    15x Melbourne → Singapore → London flights exposes you to 1 millisievert
  • Diagnostic X-rays

    A diagnostic X-ray is the oldest and most common medical radiology procedure. Radiologists use X-rays to help diagnose disease or injury inside your body. A machine directs a small, carefully calculated amount of radiation toward a specific part of the body to produce an image on a film on the other side of the body. Radiologists study the X-ray images to detect and diagnose disease or injury.

  • CT dosage

    Computed Tomography (CT) is currently one of the major contributors to the collective population radiation dose due to the increasing popularity of CT examinations as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. The evolution of CT scanner technology has turned their use from specialized into routine examination. More due diligence is required due to the high radiation dose of CT.

  • Where to from here?

    It is of the utmost importance that both clinical justification as well as technical optimization are implemented to maintain a high benefit to risk ratio. Solid interdisciplinary partnerships and research endeavours between clinical specialists and technology engineers will help to fast track developments in this area.

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Intellectual Property

The Laboratory for Dynamic Imaging generated a series of global patents between 2008—2013. All public disclosure is made at the discretion of the inventors. For further information, contact the researchers directly.


2010 publications

Peer reviewed journal papers:


  1. Chua, C.S., Higgins, S.P.A. & Fouras, A. (2010) An asynchronous high-speed synchrotron shutter. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 17, 624–630.

    doi: 10.1107/S0909049510025847
  2. Dubsky, S., Jamison, R.A., Irvine, S.C., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) Computed tomographic X-ray velocimetry, 6th International Conference on Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation, American Institute of Physics (AIP) Conference Proceedings, 1266, 35–38.

    doi: 10.1063/1.3478193
  3. Ng, I., Kumar, V., Sheard, G.J., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) Surface Topography of Jet Shock Cells in an Hydraulic Analogy. Journal of Visualisation, 13(3), 175–176.

    doi: 10.1007/s12650-010-0032-3
    • Recipient of The Visualization Society of Japan (VSJ) Award for Excellent Visualization in 2011
  4. Nguyen, C.V., Fouras, A. & Carberry, J. (2010) Improvement of measurement accuracy in micro PIV by image overlapping. Experiments in Fluids, 49(3), 701–712.

    doi: 10.1007/s00348-010-0837-9
  5. Kitchen, M.J., Habib, A., Fouras, A., Dubsky, S., Lewis, R.A., Wallace, M.J. & Hooper, S.B. (2010) A new design for high stability pressure-controlled ventilation for small animal lung imaging. Journal of Instrumentation, 5(2), T02002.

    doi: 10.1088/1748-0221/5/02/T02002
  6. Irvine, S.C., Paganin, D.M., Jamison, R.A., Dubsky, S. & Fouras, A. (2010) Vector tomographic X-ray phase contrast velocimetry utilizing dynamic blood speckle. Optics Express, 18(3), 2368–2379.

    doi: 10.1364/OE.18.002368
  7. Dubsky, S., Jamison, R.A., Irvine, S.C., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) Computed tomographic X-ray velocimetry. Applied Physics Letters, 96(2), 023702.

    doi: 10.1063/1.3285173

Invited Talks:


  1. Fouras, A. (2010) Looking at cross-correlation in depth: 3D micro-PIV for measurement in biological and highly-seeded environments, International Symposium on Micro/Nano Flow Measurement Techniques, Tokyo, Japan, 20–22 September 2010.
  2. Fouras, A. (2010) Towards Functional X-ray CT: disease revealed in motion, in Proc. 4th Australian-Italian Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation, Melbourne, Australia, 19–21 February 2010.

Conference Papers:


  1. Sheard, G.J., Fouras, A. & Hourigan, K. (2010) PIV measurement of a subharmonic "Mode C" three-dimensional instability behind inclined square cylinders, Proc. IUTAM Symposium on Bluff Body Wakes and Vortex-Induced Vibrations, Capri, Italy, 22–25 June 2010.
  2. Tolouei, E., Fouras, A. & Carberry, J. (2010) Effect of shear rate on thrombus growth, 8th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels, Montreal, Canada, 1–5 August 2010.
  3. Dubsky, S., Jamison, R.A., Higgins, S., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) Computed tomographic X-ray velocimetry for simultaneous measurement of 3D velocity and object geometry in opaque vessels, 15th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 5–8 July 2010.
  4. Fouras, A., Dubsky, S., Nguyen, J., Hourigan, K., Kitchen, M.J., Allison, B.J., Wallace, M.J., Siew, M.L., Siu, K.K.W., Lewis, R.A., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N. & Hooper, S. (2010) In-vivo Synchrotron PIV for the measurement of airway motion, 15th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 5–8 July 2010.
  5. Jamison, R.A., Dubsky, S., Higgins, S., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) Synchrotron X-ray PIV of haemodynamic forces within a stenosed in vitro model at physiological flow rates, 15th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 5–8 July 2010.
  6. Nguyen, C.V., Carberry, J. & Fouras, A. (2010) Volumetric-correlation PIV to measure particle concentration and velocity of micro flows, 15th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 5–8 July 2010.
  7. Samarage, C.R., Carberry, J., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) Optimisation of temporal averaging processes in PIV, 15th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 5–8 July 2010.
  8. Beltran, M.A., Paganin, D.M., Hooper, S.B., Siu, K.K.W., Fouras, A., Wallace, M.J., Allison, B.J., Lewis, R.A., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N. & Kitchen, M.J. (2010) Quantitative phase contrast tomography of complex biological objects using a single defocus distance per projection, in Proc. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation — MASR 2010, Melbourne, Australia, 16–18 February 2010.
  9. Dubsky, S., Jamison, R.A., Irvine, S.C., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) Computed tomographic X-ray velocimetry, in Proc. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation — MASR 2010, Melbourne, Australia, 16–18 February 2010.
  10. Fouras, A., Allison, B.J., Kitchen, M.J., Dubsky, S., Nguyen, J., Hourigan, K., Siu, K.K.W., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N., Lewis, R.A., Wallace, M.J., & Hooper, S. (2010) Detection of lung pathology using X-ray velocimetry, in Proc. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation — MASR 2010, Melbourne, Australia, 16–18 February 2010.
  11. Hooper, S., Kitchen, M.J., Wallace, M.J., Fouras, A., Allison, B.J., Siew, M.L., Te Pas, A.B., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N. & Lewis, R.A. (2010) Imaging lung aeration at birth: An example of bidirectional translational research that is improving the care of premature infants, in Proc. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation — MASR 2010, Melbourne, Australia, 16–18 February 2010.

Conference Posters:


  1. Crosbie, J.C., Lewis, R.A., Stevenson, A., Hall, C.J., Midgley, S., Sprung, C.N., Cholewa, M., Higgins, S., Ackerly, T., Gagliardi, F., Maskimenko, A., Hausermann, D. & Rogers, P.A.W. (2010) Dosimetry for synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy at the Australian Synchrotron Imaging & Medical Beamline, in the Poster Session for The Meetings of Biology and Synchrotron Radiation & Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation — BSR 2010 & MASR 2010, Melbourne, Australia, 16–19 February 2010.
  2. Higgins, S., Chua, C.S., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2010) A sub-millisecond asynchronous X-ray shutter (The Absence of Light: A high speed shutter used for ultra-fast imaging and dose control for X-ray beams), in the Poster Session for The Meetings of Biology and Synchrotron Radiation & Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation — BSR 2010 & MASR 2010, Melbourne, Australia, 16–19 February 2010.
  3. Wallace, M.J., Fouras, A., Zahra, V.A., Siew, M.L., Allison, B.J., Wheeler, K., Kitchen, M.J., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N., Lewis, R.A. & Hooper, S. (2010) Identifying regional lung injury in ventilated preterm rabbit pups, in the Poster Session for The Meetings of Biology and Synchrotron Radiation & Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation — BSR 2010 & MASR 2010, Melbourne, Australia, 16–19 February 2010.
  4. Wheeler, K.I., Kitchen, M.J., Wallace, M.J., Islam, M.S., Siew, M.L., Davis, P.G., Morley, C.J., Lewis, R.A., Fouras, A., Nguyen, J., Yagi, N., Uesugi, K. & Hooper, S. (2010) Investigation of surfactant administration of preterm lung disease using simultaneous synchrotron-based phase contrast imaging and physiologial measurement techniques, in the Poster Session for The Meetings of Biology and Synchrotron Radiation & Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation — BSR 2010 & MASR 2010, Melbourne, Australia, 16–19 February 2010.