• Fun Facts

    Post
    Australians are exposed to 2 millisieverts of 'background' radiation per year
    Post
    A CT of the chest can be roughly equivalent to having 100 single chest X-rays
    Post
    15x Melbourne → Singapore → London flights exposes you to 1 millisievert
  • Diagnostic X-rays

    A diagnostic X-ray is the oldest and most common medical radiology procedure. Radiologists use X-rays to help diagnose disease or injury inside your body. A machine directs a small, carefully calculated amount of radiation toward a specific part of the body to produce an image on a film on the other side of the body. Radiologists study the X-ray images to detect and diagnose disease or injury.

  • CT dosage

    Computed Tomography (CT) is currently one of the major contributors to the collective population radiation dose due to the increasing popularity of CT examinations as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. The evolution of CT scanner technology has turned their use from specialized into routine examination. More due diligence is required due to the high radiation dose of CT.

  • Where to from here?

    It is of the utmost importance that both clinical justification as well as technical optimization are implemented to maintain a high benefit to risk ratio. Solid interdisciplinary partnerships and research endeavours between clinical specialists and technology engineers will help to fast track developments in this area.

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Intellectual Property

The Laboratory for Dynamic Imaging generated a series of global patents between 2008—2013. All public disclosure is made at the discretion of the inventors. For further information, contact the researchers directly.


2011 publications

Peer reviewed journal papers:


  1. Beltran, M.A., Paganin, D.M., Siu, K.K.W., Fouras, A., Hooper, S.B., Reser, D.H. & Kitchen, M.J. (2011) Interface-specific x-ray phase retrieval tomography of complex biological organs. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 56(23), 7353–7369.

    doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/56/23/002
  2. Curtis, M.D., Sheard, G.J. & Fouras, A. (2011) Feedback control system simulator for the control of biological cells in microfluidic cross slots and integrated microfluidic systems. Lab on a Chip, 11(14), 2343–2351.

    doi: 10.1039/C1LC20191C
  3. Kumar, V., Ng, I., Sheard, G.J., Brocher, E., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2011) Application of Particle Image Velocimetry and Reference Image Topography to jet shock cells using the hydraulic analogy. Experiments in Fluids, 51(2), 543–541.

    doi: 10.1007/s00348-011-1072-8
  4. Ackerly, T., Crosbie, J.C., Fouras, A., Sheard, G.J., Higgins, S.P.A. & Lewis, R.A. (2011) High resolution optical calorimetry for synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy. Journal of Instrumentation, 6, P03003.

    doi: 10.1088/1748-0221/6/03/P03003
  5. Siew, M.L., te Pas, A.B., Wallace, M.J., Kitchen, M.J., Islam, M., Lewis, R.A., Fouras, A., Morley, C.J., Davis, P.G., Yagi, N., Uesugi, K. & Hooper, S.B. (2011) Surfactant increases the uniformity of lung aeration at birth in ventilated preterm rabbits. Journal of Physiology, 70(1), 50–55.

    doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e31821be094
  6. Ismadi, M.Z.P., Meunier, P., Fouras, A. & Hourigan, K. (2011) Experimental control of vortex breakdown by density effects. Physics in Fluids, 23(3), 034104.

    doi: 10.1063/1.3560386
  7. Jamison, R.A., Dubsky, S., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2011) X-ray Velocimetry and haemodynamic forces within a stenosed femoral model at physiological flow rates. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 39(6), 1643–1653.

    doi: 10.1007/s10439-011-0260-2
  8. Tolouei, E., Butler, C.J., Fouras, A., Ryan, K., Sheard, G.J. & Carberry, J. (2011) Effect of hemodynamic forces on thrombi geometry. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 39(5), 1403–1413.

    doi: 10.1007/s10439-010-0239-4
  9. Ng, I., Kumar, V., Sheard, G.J., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2011) Experimental study of simultaneous measurement of velocity and surface topography: In the wake of a circular cylinder at low Reynolds number. Experiments in Fluids, 50(3), 587–595.

    doi: 10.1007/s00348-010-0960-7

Technical Reports:


  1. Hooper, S.B., Kitchen, M.J., Fouras, A., Wallace, M.J., Dubsky, S., Siu, K.K.W., Siew, M.L., Yagi, N., Uesugi, K. & Lewis, R. (2011) Combined Lung Imaging and Respiratory Physiology Research at SPring-8. Synchrotron Radiation News, 24(2), 19–23.

    doi: 10.1080/08940886.2011.567164

Invited Talks:


  1. Fouras, A. (2011) Functional imaging enables new perspectives on disease, NHMRC Council, Canberra, Australia, 1 December 2011.

Conference Papers:


  1. PDF Download Dubsky, S., Hooper, S.B., Siu, K.K.W. & Fouras, A. (2011) Dynamic four-dimensional X-ray PIV of the lung, in Proc. 9th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV11, Kobe, Japan, 21–23 July 2011.
  2. PDF Download Higgins, S.P.A., Samarage, C.R., Paganin, D.M. & Fouras, A. (2011) Holographic Correlation Velocimetry, in Proc. 9th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV11, Kobe, Japan, 21–23 July 2011.
  3. PDF Download Samarage, C.R., Carberry, J., Sheard, G.J. & Fouras, A. (2011) Polynomial element velocimetry (PEV): A novel method for better than pixel resolution measurements, in Proc. 9th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV11, Kobe, Japan, 21–23 July 2011.
  4. Hourigan, K., Ismadi, M.Z.P., Meunier, P. & Fouras, A. (2011) Vortex breakdown in bioreactors. International symposium on bifurcations and instabilities in fluid dynamics, Barcelona, 18–21 July 2011.
  5. Meunier, P., Ismadi, M.Z.P., Fouras, A. & Hourigan, K. (2011) Experimental control of vortex breakdown by density effects. EUROMECH Colloquium 525, Instabilities and transition in three-dimensional flows with rotation, Lyon, France, 21–23 June 2011.