• Fun Facts

    Post
    Australians are exposed to 2 millisieverts of 'background' radiation per year
    Post
    A CT of the chest can be roughly equivalent to having 100 single chest X-rays
    Post
    15x Melbourne → Singapore → London flights exposes you to 1 millisievert
  • Diagnostic X-rays

    A diagnostic X-ray is the oldest and most common medical radiology procedure. Radiologists use X-rays to help diagnose disease or injury inside your body. A machine directs a small, carefully calculated amount of radiation toward a specific part of the body to produce an image on a film on the other side of the body. Radiologists study the X-ray images to detect and diagnose disease or injury.

  • CT dosage

    Computed Tomography (CT) is currently one of the major contributors to the collective population radiation dose due to the increasing popularity of CT examinations as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. The evolution of CT scanner technology has turned their use from specialized into routine examination. More due diligence is required due to the high radiation dose of CT.

  • Where to from here?

    It is of the utmost importance that both clinical justification as well as technical optimization are implemented to maintain a high benefit to risk ratio. Solid interdisciplinary partnerships and research endeavours between clinical specialists and technology engineers will help to fast track developments in this area.

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Intellectual Property

The Laboratory for Dynamic Imaging generated a series of global patents between 2008—2013. All public disclosure is made at the discretion of the inventors. For further information, contact the researchers directly.


2012 publications

Invited review papers:


  1. Jamison, R.A., Armitage, J.A., Carberry, J., Kitchen, M.J., Hooper, S.B. & Fouras, A. (2012) Functional imaging to understand biomechanics: a critical tool for the study of biology, pathology and the development of pharmacological solutions. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 13(11), 2128–2140.

    doi: 10.2174/138920112802502060

Peer reviewed journal papers:


  1. Thurgood, J.B., Hooper, S.B., Siew, M.L., Wallace, M.J., Dubsky, S., Kitchen, M.J., Jamison, R.A., Carnibella, R.P. & Fouras, A. (2012) Functional Lung Imaging During HFV in Preterm Rabbits. PLoS One, 7(10), e48122.

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048122
  2. Ng, I., Paganin, D.M. & Fouras, A. (2012) Optimization of in-line phase contrast particle image velocimetry using a laboratory X-ray source. Journal of Applied Physics, 112, 074701.

    doi: 10.1063/1.4757407
  3. Jamison, R.A., Siu, K.K.W., Dubsky, S., Armitage, J.A. & Fouras, A. (2012) X-ray Velocimetry within the ex vivo carotid artery. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 19, 1050-1055.

    doi: 10.1107/S0909049512033912
  4. Carnibella, R.P., Fouras, A. & Kitchen, M.J. (2012) Single exposure, dual energy subtraction X-ray imaging using a synchrotron source. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 19, 954-959.

    doi: 10.1107/S0909049512033900
  5. Samarage, C.R., Carberry, J., Sheard, G.J. & Fouras, A. (2012) Polynomial Element Velocimetry (PEV): A technique for continuous in-plane velocity and velocity gradient measurements for low Reynolds number flows. Measurement Science and Technology, 23(10), 105304.

    doi: 10.1088/0957-0233/23/10/105304
  6. Carnibella, R.P., Kitchen, M.J. & Fouras, A. (2012) Determining particle size distributions from a single projection image. Optics Express, 20(14), 15962–15968.

    doi: 10.1364/OE.20.015962
  7. Dubsky, S., Hooper, S.B., Siu, K.K.W. & Fouras, A. (2012) Synchrotron-based dynamic computed tomography of tissue motion for regional lung function measurement. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 9(74), 2213–2224.

    doi: 10.1098/rsif.2012.0116

    Please visit our Research page for related videos.
  8. Jamison, R.A., Fouras, A. & Bryson-Richardson, R.J. (2012) Cardiac-Phase Filtering in Intracardiac Particle Image Velocimetry. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 17, 036007.

    doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.17.3.036007
  9. Fouras, A., Allison, B.J., Kitchen, M.J., Dubsky, S., Nguyen, J.T., Hourigan, K., Siu, K.K.W., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N., Lewis, R.A., Wallace, M.J. & Hooper, S.B. (2012) Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 40(5), 1160–1169.

    doi: 10.1007/s10439-011-0493-0
  10. Donnelley, M., Siu, K.K.W., Jamison, R.A. & Parsons, D.W. (2012) Synchrotron phase-contrast X-ray imaging reveals fluid dosing dynamics for gene transfer into mouse airways. Gene Therapy, 19, 8–14.

    doi: 10.1038/gt.2011.80
  11. Nguyen, C.V., Carberry, J. & Fouras, A. (2012) Volumetric-correlation PIV to measure particle concentration and velocity of micro flows. Experiments in Fluids. 52(3), 663–677

    doi: 10.1007/s00348-011-1087-1
  12. Samarage, C.R., Carberry, J., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2012) Optimisation of temporal averaging processes in PIV. Experiments in Fluids. 52(3), 617–631.

    doi: 10.1007/s00348-011-1080-8
  13. Dubsky, S., Jamison, R.A., Higgins, S., Siu, K.K.W., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2012) Computed Tomographic X-ray Velocimetry for simultaneous 3D measurement of velocity and geometry in opaque vessels. Experiments in Fluids, 52(3), 543–554.

    doi: 10.1007/s00348-010-1006-x

Invited Talks:


  1. Fouras, A. (2012) Synchrotron imaging for a new perspective on cardiovascular disease. Annual Scientific Meeting of the Asian Society for Vascular Surgery and the World Federation of Vascular Societies (ANZSVS 2012), Melbourne, Australia, 20–23 October 2012.
  2. Fouras, A. (2012) In vivo tomographic velocimetry of the lung for the detailed study of lung disease and its treatments. SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics — Developments in X-ray Tomography VIII, San Diego, U.S.A., 12–16 August 2012.
  3. Fouras, A. (2012) A Mechanical Engineer's Perspective on Medical Research. Monash Science Centre 2012 Lecture Series: Science Shaping Society, Monash University Clayton, Victoria, Australia, 25 July 2012.

Conference Papers:


  1. PDF Download Xiong, T., Ilmi, H., Hoarau, Y., Choquet, P., Goetz, C., Fouras, A., Dubsky, S., Braza, M., Sainlos-Brillac, S., Plourabou√©, F., & Lo Jacono, D. (2012) Flow and particles deposition in anatomically realistic airways. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering 2012, 15(S1), 56–58.
  2. Dubsky, S., Hooper, S.B., Siu, K.K.W. & Fouras, A. (2012) In vivo tomographic velocimetry of the lung for the detailed study of lung disease and its treatments. SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics — Developments in X-ray Tomography VIII, 85060G (October 17, 2012), San Diego, U.S.A., 12–16 August 2012.

    doi: 10.1117/12.929465
  3. Thurgood, J.B., Dubsky, S., Siu, K.K.W., Wallace, M.J., Siew, M.L., Hooper, S.B. & Fouras, A. (2012) Mapping cardiogenic oscillations using synchrotron based phase contrast CT imaging. SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics — Developments in X-ray Tomography VIII, 85060H (October 17, 2012), San Diego, U.S.A., 12–16 August 2012.

    doi: 10.1117/12.929463
  4. Samarage, C.R., Sheard, G.J., Smyth, I., Bryson–Richardson, R.J. & Fouras, A. (2012) Application of a novel diffraction-based tomography method for imaging biological samples. SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics — Developments in X-ray Tomography VIII, 85061I (October 17, 2012), San Diego, U.S.A., 12–16 August 2012.

    doi: 10.1117/12.929444
  5. Wong, K.Y., Akulshin, O., Armitage, J.A., Fouras, A. & Sheard, G.J. (2012) Effect of red blood cell stiffness on flow profiles in microchannels. Proc. 18th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Launceston, Australia, 3–7 December 2012.

Conference Abstracts:


  1. Siu, K.K.W., Chua, C.S., Parsons, D.W., Donnelley, M., Morgan, K.S., Farrow, N. & Fouras, A. (2012) Regional measures of lung function in the ß–ENaC mouse obtained using X-ray image velocimetry. 26th Annual North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference — NACFC 2012, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A, 11–13 October 2012.

    Pediatric Pulmonology, 47(S35), September 2012, pg 351.
    doi: 10.1002/ppul.22682
  2. Morgan, K.S., Donnelley, M., Fouras, A., Parsons, D.W. & Siu, K.K.W. (2012) Synchrotron Phase Contrast X-ray imaging can detect airway surface liquid depth changes following aerosolised hypertonic saline treatment. 26th Annual North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A, 11–13 October 2012.

    Pediatric Pulmonology, 47(S35), September 2012, pg 302.
    doi: 10.1002/ppul.22682