• Fun Facts

    Post
    Australians are exposed to 2 millisieverts of 'background' radiation per year
    Post
    A CT of the chest can be roughly equivalent to having 100 single chest X-rays
    Post
    15x Melbourne → Singapore → London flights exposes you to 1 millisievert
  • Diagnostic X-rays

    A diagnostic X-ray is the oldest and most common medical radiology procedure. Radiologists use X-rays to help diagnose disease or injury inside your body. A machine directs a small, carefully calculated amount of radiation toward a specific part of the body to produce an image on a film on the other side of the body. Radiologists study the X-ray images to detect and diagnose disease or injury.

  • CT dosage

    Computed Tomography (CT) is currently one of the major contributors to the collective population radiation dose due to the increasing popularity of CT examinations as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. The evolution of CT scanner technology has turned their use from specialized into routine examination. More due diligence is required due to the high radiation dose of CT.

  • Where to from here?

    It is of the utmost importance that both clinical justification as well as technical optimization are implemented to maintain a high benefit to risk ratio. Solid interdisciplinary partnerships and research endeavours between clinical specialists and technology engineers will help to fast track developments in this area.

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Intellectual Property

The Laboratory for Dynamic Imaging generated a series of global patents between 2008—2013. All public disclosure is made at the discretion of the inventors. For further information, contact the researchers directly.


2013 publications

Peer reviewed journal papers:


  1. Jamison, R.A., Samarage, C.R., Bryson-Richardson, R.J. & Fouras, A. (2013) In vivo wall shear measurements within the developing zebrafish heart. PLoS One, 8(10), e75722.

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075722
  2. Hooper, S.B., Fouras, A., Siew, M.L.L., Wallace, M.J., Kitchen, M.J., te Pas, A.B., Klingenberg, C., Lewis, R.A., Davis, P.G., Morley, C.J. & Schmölzer G. (2013) Expired CO2 levels indicate degree of lung aeration at birth. PLoS One, 8(8), e70895.

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070895
  3. Carnibella, R.P., Kitchen, M.J. & Fouras, A. (2013) Decoding the structure of granular and porous materials from speckled phase contrast X-ray images. Optics Express, 21(16), 19153–19162.

    doi: 10.1364/OE.21.019153
  4. Ismadi, M.Z.P., Higgins, S.P.A., Samarage, C.R., Paganin, D.M., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. (2013) Optimisation of a stirred bioreactor through the use of a novel Holographic Correlation Velocimetry flow measurement technique. PLoS One, 8(6):e65714.

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065714
  5. Leong, A.F.T, Fouras, A., Islam, M.S., Wallace, M.J., Hooper, S.B. & Kitchen, M.J. (2013) High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images. Medical Physics, 40(4), 041909.

    doi: 10.1118/1.4794926
  6. Morgan, K.S., Donnelley, M., Paganin, D.M., Fouras, A., Yagi, N., Suzuki, Y., Takeuchi, A., Boucher, R.C., Parsons, D.W. & Siu, K.K.W. (2013) Measuring airway surface liquid depth in live airways by x-ray imaging for the assessment of cystic fibrosis airway therapies. PLoS One, 8(1): e55822.

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055822
  7. Siew, M.L., Wallace, M.J., Allison, B.J., Kitchen, M.J., te Pas, A.B., Islam, M.S., Lewis, R.A., Fouras, A., Yagi, N., Uesugi, K. & Hooper, S.B. (2013) The role of lung inflation and sodium transport in airway liquid clearance during lung aeration in newborn rabbits. Pediatric Research, 73, 443–449.

    doi: 10.1038/pr.2012.197
  8. Wheeler, K.I., Wallace, M.J., Kitchen, M.J., te Pas, A.B., Fouras, A., Islam, M.S., Siew, M.L., Lewis, R.A., Morley, C.J., Davis, P.G. & Hooper, S.B. (2013) Establishing lung gas volumes at birth: The interaction between positive end expiratory pressures and tidal volumes in preterm rabbits. Pediatric Research, 73, 734–741.

    doi: 10.1038/pr.2013.48

Invited Talks:


  1. Fouras, A. (2013) Quantification and Visualisation of 4D datas. OzViz 2013, Monash University Clayton, Victoria, Australia, 10 December 2013.
  2. Fouras, A. (2013) Mechanical Engineering in Medical Research. 2013 Tri-University Research Workshop on Advanced Engineering, Monash University Clayton, Victoria, Australia, 10 December 2013.

Conference Abstracts:


  1. Arthur, J.F., Pinar, I., Facey, A., Fouras, A., Ryan, K., Andrews, R.K., Carberry, J. & Gardiner, E.E.. (2013) Medicine Meets Mathematics: Measuring ADAM10 Activity Directly on a Forming Thrombus. Blood, 122(21): Abstract 196 (15 November 2013). 55th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematolgy, New Orleans, LA, December 7-10 2013.