• Fun Facts

    Post
    Australians are exposed to 2 millisieverts of 'background' radiation per year
    Post
    A CT of the chest can be roughly equivalent to having 100 single chest X-rays
    Post
    15x Melbourne → Singapore → London flights exposes you to 1 millisievert
  • Diagnostic X-rays

    A diagnostic X-ray is the oldest and most common medical radiology procedure. Radiologists use X-rays to help diagnose disease or injury inside your body. A machine directs a small, carefully calculated amount of radiation toward a specific part of the body to produce an image on a film on the other side of the body. Radiologists study the X-ray images to detect and diagnose disease or injury.

  • CT dosage

    Computed Tomography (CT) is currently one of the major contributors to the collective population radiation dose due to the increasing popularity of CT examinations as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. The evolution of CT scanner technology has turned their use from specialized into routine examination. More due diligence is required due to the high radiation dose of CT.

  • Where to from here?

    It is of the utmost importance that both clinical justification as well as technical optimization are implemented to maintain a high benefit to risk ratio. Solid interdisciplinary partnerships and research endeavours between clinical specialists and technology engineers will help to fast track developments in this area.

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Intellectual Property

The Laboratory for Dynamic Imaging generated a series of global patents between 2008—2013. All public disclosure is made at the discretion of the inventors. For further information, contact the researchers directly.


2014 publications

Book Chapters:


  1. Dubsky, S. & Fouras, A. (2014) The role of functional lung imaging in improvement of pulmonary drug delivery, Advances in Pharmaceutical Technology. Wiley-Blackwell, Edited Ali Nokhodchi. In Press.

Peer reviewed journal papers:


  1. Ismadi, M.Z., Gupta, P., Fouras, A., Verma, P., Jadhav, S., Bellare, J., & Hourigan, K. (2014) Flow Characterisation of a Spinner Flask for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture Application. PLoS One. Accepted for publication (03/08/2014)
  2. Henon, Y.N., Sheard, G.J. & Fouras, A., (2014) Erythrocyte deformation in a microfluidic cross-slot channel. RSC Advances, 4(68), 36079–36088.
  3. Gupta, P., Ismadi, M.Z., Verma, P.J., Fouras, A., Jadhav, S., Bellare, J. & Hourigan, K. (2014) Optimization of agitation speed in spinner flask for microcarrier structural integrity and expansion of induced pluripotent stem cells. Cytotechnology.

    doi: 10.1007/s10616-014-9750-z
  4. Lang, J.A.R., Pearson, J.T., te Pas, A.B., Wallace, M.J., Siew, M.L.L., Kitchen, M.J., Fouras, A., Lewis, R.A., Wheeler, K., Polglase, G.R., Shirai, M., Sonobe, T. & Hooper, S.B. (2014) Ventilation/Perfusion mismatch during lung aeration at birth. Journal of Applied Physiology.

    doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01358.2013
  5. Morgan, K.S., Donnelley, M., Farrow, N., Fouras, A., Yagi, N., Suzuki, Y., Takeuchi, A., Uesugi, K., Boucher, R.C., Siu, K.K.W. & Parsons, D.W. (2014) In vivo x-ray imaging reveals improved airway surface hydration after Cystic Fibrosis airway therapy. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 190(4), 469–472.

    doi: 10.1164/rccm.201405-0855LE
  6. Donnelley, M., Morgan, K.S., Siu, K.K.W., Fouras, A., Farrow, N.R., Carnibella, R.P. & Parsons, D.P. (2014) Tracking extended mucociliary transport activity of individual deposited particles: longitudinal synchrotron X-ray imaging in live mice. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 21(4), 768–773.

    doi: 10.1107/S160057751400856X
  7. Kitchen, M.J., Siew, M.L., te Pas, A.B., Lewis, R.A., Wallace, M.J., Fouras, A., Yagi, N., Uesugi, K. & Hooper, S.B. (2014) Changes in positive end-expiratory pressure alter the distribution of ventilation within the lung immediately after birth in newborn rabbits. PLoS One, e93391.

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093391
  8. Murrie, R.P., Stevenson, A.W., Morgan, K.S., Fouras, A., Paganin, D.M. & Siu, K.K.W. (2014) Feasibility study of propagation-based phase-contrast X-ray lung imaging on the Imaging and Medical beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 21, 430–445.

    doi: 10.1107/S1600577513034681
  9. Donnelley, M., Morgan, K.S., Siu, K.K.W., Farrow, N., Stahr, C.S., Boucher, R.C., Fouras, A. & Parsons, D.W. (2014) Non-invasive airway health assessment: Synchrotron imaging reveals effects of rehydrating treatments on mucociliary transit in-vivo. Scientific Reports, 4, 3689.

    doi: 10.1038/srep03689

Papers under review:


  1. Samarage, C.R., Fierro-Gonzalez, J.C., White, M.D., Jesudason, E.C., Bissiere, S., Fouras, A. & Plachta, N. (2014) Biomechanical forces form the pluripotent inner mass of the mammalian embryo.

Conference Abstracts:


  1. Dubsky, S., Thurgood, J.B., Henon, Y., & Fouras, A. (2014) A low dose, high spatio-temporal resolution system for real-time four-dimensional lung function imaging. Proc. American Thoracic Society 2014 International Conference — ATS 2014, San Diego, California, U.S.A., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 189, A4316. (16–21 May 2014).
  2. Fouras, A., Dubsky, S., Samarage, C.R., Thurgood, J.B., Henon, Y., Zosky, G., & Hooper, S.B. (2014) Local lung function and airway size response during methacholine challenge and salbutamol treatment measured using high-resolution dynamic CT and functional lung imaging. Proc. American Thoracic Society 2014 International Conference — ATS 2014, San Diego, California, U.S.A., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 189, A2396. (16–21 May 2014).
  3. Stahr, C.S., Samarage, C.R., Parsons, D.W., Dubsky, S., Donnelley, M., Thurgood, J.B., Henon, Y., Siu, K.K.W. & Fouras, A. (2014) Regional image based pulmonary function testing detects CF lung disease earlier than conventional PFT. Proc. American Thoracic Society 2014 International Conference — ATS 2014, San Diego, California, U.S.A., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 189, A2837. (16–21 May 2014).
  4. Thurgood, J.B., Dubsky, S., Henon, Y., Jesudason, E. & Fouras, A. (2014) Heart-Lung Interactions: A Vital Source Of Gas Mixing Within The Lungs. Proc. American Thoracic Society 2014 International Conference — ATS 2014, San Diego, California, U.S.A., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 189, A6275. (16–21 May 2014).
  5. Carnibella, R.P., Kitchen, M.J. & Fouras, A. (2014) Single-shot X-ray measurement of alveolar size distributions. Proc. SPIE 9038, Medical Imaging 2014: Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging, 90380V (March 13, 2014).

    doi: 10.1117/12.2043415