• Fun Facts

    Australians are exposed to 2 millisieverts of 'background' radiation per year
    A CT of the chest can be roughly equivalent to having 100 single chest X-rays
    15x Melbourne → Singapore → London flights exposes you to 1 millisievert
  • Diagnostic X-rays

    A diagnostic X-ray is the oldest and most common medical radiology procedure. Radiologists use X-rays to help diagnose disease or injury inside your body. A machine directs a small, carefully calculated amount of radiation toward a specific part of the body to produce an image on a film on the other side of the body. Radiologists study the X-ray images to detect and diagnose disease or injury.

  • CT dosage

    Computed Tomography (CT) is currently one of the major contributors to the collective population radiation dose due to the increasing popularity of CT examinations as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. The evolution of CT scanner technology has turned their use from specialized into routine examination. More due diligence is required due to the high radiation dose of CT.

  • Where to from here?

    It is of the utmost importance that both clinical justification as well as technical optimization are implemented to maintain a high benefit to risk ratio. Solid interdisciplinary partnerships and research endeavours between clinical specialists and technology engineers will help to fast track developments in this area.


Research philosphy


To generate a global impact on human health through the development of a new generation of research and diagnostic capabilities based on function imaging.


Basic Science: Gaining greater knowledge of biological processes and functions.

Clinical Practice: Improved diagnoses and disease surveillance; improved capability for development and evaluation of treatment delivery methods.

Research outcomes

As a biomedical imaging research laboratory, LDI focused on dynamic respiratory and cardiovascular systems where biomechanics play a significant role. This research was conducted on two major research platforms. The first, utilising optical micro-imaging and synchrotron X-ray imaging techniques to gain dynamic insight into vascular and pulmonary diseases ranging from asthma to atherosclerosis; and the second, cell rheology driven by the development of single cell tracking and sorting methods. As a result of research need, LDI has produced many technologies and apparatus to make these research interests a reality. Consequently, a number of these developments have led to patents filed by inventors within the research group.

Functional X-ray CT for Lung imaging

4D rendering of airflow within mouse bronchial tree under mechanical ventilation, measured using dynamic computed tomography. The data was acquired at 60 frames per second and reconstructed with a voxel size of 20 micron.
Courtesy: Dubsky, S., Hooper, S.B., Siu, K.K.W. & Fouras, A. (2012) Journal of the Royal Society Interface. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2012.0116

4D rendering of mouse lung and ribs under mechanical ventilation. The lung tissue is coloured according to its total displacement relative to end expiration, and half of the data is rendered as transparent to allow visualisation of the internal lung displacement. The data was acquired at 60 frames per second and reconstructed with a voxel size of 20 micron.
Courtesy: Dubsky, S., Hooper, S.B., Siu, K.K.W. & Fouras, A. (2012) Journal of the Royal Society Interface. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2012.0116

Single Cell disease detection

Cell Sorting simulation using the CIFH technique described in Curtis, M.D., Sheard, G.J. & Fouras, A. (2011) Lab on a Chip doi: 10.1039/C1LC20191C. Cells enter from the left-hand port and are classified as either type 1 (black) or type 2 (white). The system manipulates the flow rates in the device to push the type 1 cells to the upper outlet port and the type 2 cells to the lower outlet. This video demonstrates that high-throughput, automated sorting can be carried out while imaging individual cells.
Courtesy: Curtis, M.D. (2012), Laboratory for Dynamic Imaging.

Cell Trapping simulation using the CIFH technique. A single cell enters a microfluidic cross-slot in a position far from the centreline of the channel. Normally, this cell would be rapidly forced out the upper outlet by fluid forces (as shown by the streamlines in the graphic). However, using active control of the relative flow rates into and out of the device, the cell can be steered to the central stagnation point, where the cell can be stretched and manipulated further. The simulation further assumes that the accuracy of the imaging system that detects the cell is low and demonstrates that trapping is still possible under these constraints.
Courtesy: Curtis, M.D. (2012), Laboratory for Dynamic Imaging.